CLMOOC Unmake: Unintroducing inquiry learning

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I’m delighted to see educators around the world embracing the term ‘inquiry’. The word itself is so nebulous that it defies definition. One could assume it means simply ‘asking a question’, but it also means ‘collecting and organizing information’. Broadened further in my preferred nomenclature, ‘inquiry learning’ perplexes even further.

Are we learning through inquiry? Are we learning about inquiry? Are we inquiring into learning? Is it just a typo?

It’s an ideal topic for Making Learning Connected. As Michael Weller writes in his post, CLMOOC 2015: Make An Inquiry, Make Cycle 1 for the Make an Inquiry strand this summer, ”I think that inquiry, like the term research, can be intimidating – but I don’t think it needs to be!’.


As connected educators take to the information superhighway to explore and interpret the meaning of ‘inquiry learning’, our evaluations and reflections belie insecurity.

If a term exists that can be known, then we should be able to know it.

After all, we are educated.

Right?


There must be an answer to the question: What is inquiry learning?

We all want to get it right.


One prominent and highly visible modality in this rush to ‘get it’ is through graphics. A Google Images search for ‘inquiry cycle’ yields an overwhelmingly diverse field of interpretations. Many of these visual interpretations reveal fresh thought and creative courage in the true spirit of inquiry learning, like sprouts through the detritus.

After reading his post, Let Me Introduce Myself: From Pasture to Post, Tacit Knowing All the Way Down, I believe that Terry Elliott would enjoy a walk in this pasture ripe with nuanced tacit knowing meditating behind the desire for shared understanding.


We all know inquiry, tacitly. What we lack are mutually understood models.

An impressive amount of making has gone into this! As each of us contributes our voice to the conversation, it increases meaning for all of us.


A diverse harvest of inquiry models

Some models are quite prescriptive, like this inquiry cycle by Nicole Laura from the post, Apps to Support Inquiry: Connect and Wonder.


(All images of inquiry models are hyperlinks to sources).

Some are adaptations or remixes of well known models, such as this KWHLAQ chart from Sylvia Rosenthal Tolisano’s post, An Update to the Upgraded KWL for the 21st Century.

http://langwitches.org/blog/2015/06/12/an-update-to-the-upgraded-kwl-for-the-21st-century/

Some focus on questions to provoke inquiry, like this model from International School of Tianjin.

Some incorporate elements from popular design thinking (which I sometimes blog about using the LX Design label) models.

Design Inquiry Cycle by Rebecca Grodner, Shula Ponet
Figure 4. The Process of Inquiry and Research: Model 2


Most are based, directly or indirectly, on the work and writings of Kath Murdoch, whose post Busting some myths about ‘the inquiry cycle’… is required reading for anyone seeking to define, understand, or otherwise grapple with ‘inquiry’.

http://www.kathmurdoch.com.au/fileadmin/_migrated/content_uploads/phasesofinquiry.pdf

Don’t try to hard

A photo posted by blair at madstone farm (@startafarm) on Jun 28, 2015 at 6:12pm PDT

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We are all getting it right

As long as we are trying, we are getting it. This is a mindset that also applies well in the classroom.

It’s easy to design a comprehensible worksheet, but nobody learns much from it.

It’s hard to empower learning, and everybody learns a lot from it.

In practice

In my classroom, we use models primarily to share and participate in each other’s inquiry learning. Most of my role as a teacher is to help students to publish their learning to each other and the greater school community.

Learners can utilize the models in ways that help them, and we often modify or ignore them as necessary.

There is no curriculum for inquiry learning. It is the Knowledge, Concepts, Skills, and Attitudes that emerge and grow in pursuit of one’s curiosities. Attempts to bind inquiry learning to an established curriculum are valiant, yet often mutually destructive.

My CLMOOC ‘Make an inquiry’ Model

Often, inquiry learning models begin with some iteration of ‘formulating questions’, but I have found that that is not necessarily the best way to begin an inquiry.

Whether it speaks to my preferred learning modality or personality type, I find that making is a great way to start. The challenges that arise catalyze questions. The enjoyment of the process of making demands to be shared. Reflection on doing is inherently more motivating than reflecting on thinking.

The challenge for teachers is to document and curate a constantly evolving authentic learning community!

With that in mind, please enjoy the inquiry model I made for CLMOOC this year, entitled The importance of irreverence..

https://docs.google.com/drawings/d/1xJX9WXSgfFiPLFuacjc4e1B53C2vv9nMYDPh2W_N9LA/edit?usp=sharing

Exhibition rubrics & Global Issues Expo

My students become increasingly engrossed in their research and creating for PYP Exhibition. Thus, my role has become almost exclusively facilitator, coach, and documentarian. This is ideal in a project based learning environment.

Rubrics

In the past two weeks, I’ve devoted particular attention to developing the rubrics for the Exhibition. We will be using four rubrics in total: The PYP Exhibition self assessment rubric, pictured below, for the entire project, and separate rubrics for the essay, speech, and arts components.

In the project rubric, the top three elements are assessed in separate rubrics. The scores are converted and added to this one. The bottom five elements are the the essential elements of the IB Primary Years Program. The purpose of the Exhibition is to demonstrate understanding and engagement with these. This rubric serves as a summative assessment of students’ PYP learning.
The qualitative criteria have been revised from my previous rubrics with terminology inspired by the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition. I’ve also included hybrid ‘one point’ elements which I believe will be particularly effective for self assessment. The students will assign themselves point values for some criteria along with their reflections and rationale.
These rubrics have been shared with students throughout the process of creating them and their input has been included. Since they are all in Google Docs, my feedback after they have been completed by each student will be in the form of comments added to their self assessments.

Global Issues Expo

Our school’s International Children’s Day celebration occurred in the third week of our project. On this day, each classroom creates a unique environment and visitors from our local community are invited to play games and participate in fun learning challenges.
I thought it would be an ideal opportunity for my students to focus on their global issues for Exhibition by creating a Global Issues Expo.
In fact, our expo looked like a typical PYP Exhibition. However, I want the students to have maximum agency in how they present their Exhibition, not necessarily as a collection of display boards about global issues. So our Global Issues Expo worked out perfectly.
Students created displays that were arrayed around the classroom. Each display included a survey question which could be answered by placing a sticker.
This Animal Abuse display asked if guests would prefer to purchase a pet at a store or adopt from a shelter.

This Mental Illness display asked the poignant question, ‘Do you know any person who has a mental illness?’ We were impressed by respondents’ honesty! About 40% answered ‘yes’.
This event has led to increased energy around the students’ global issues and started authentic research in the form of surveys. I have been encouraging them to create google forms to continue their surveys online, but haven’t yet seen a completed one.

Ongoing reflection

We have also been recording reflection interviews. I knew it would be an effective formative assessment technique, but I had no idea it would be such a powerful way to help guide the students’ projects without intruding on their processes. It only takes a few minutes for each student to record their interview and then they can be instantly sorted into playlists.

Uncertain future

At this point in the process, we have formally explored each element. The students have submitted their first drafts of essays and speeches and we have conferenced about them. Some have begun art projects. We have created global issues displays, conducted surveys, and conducted interviews about possible local community action.
Now that the stage is set, it’s time for the students to truly take control.

Elements of the PYP Exhibition

This week, my class of fifth and sixth graders began the culmination of their IB Primary Years journey, the Exhibition. A self-directed and collaborative project, it is my favorite part of the year and a deeply enjoyable challenge to facilitate.

Before setting out, I organized a meeting with all Exhibition stakeholders including students, parents, teachers, and administrators. We discussed everyone’s ideas, questions, and concerns in order to draft our Essential Agreements.


Components


The Exhibition Guidelines provide clear expectations, which I have synthesized for the students to provide support for their projects. One helpful practice I have chosen is to clarify five required components of the project. Specifically, every student must choose a global issue, deliver a persuasive speech, write an expository essay, create a work of art, and engage in community action. Among our first activities was introducing the organizer below.

In this way, each student has a clear map of expectations, yet is empowered to pursue their project along their own path.

Documentation


The Exhibition as an assessment should provide each student with maximum flexibility to demonstrate their understandings. To this end, I have set up a simple wiki for each student within our class wiki to use to document and self assess their learning according to the elements of the PYP (skills, attitudes, concepts, knowledge, action).

Each student has a shared Evernote notebook which functions as a portfolio. Throughout the year, we gather photos, audio reflections, links to blog posts, scanned work, etc. During Exhibition, I am particularly active trying to catch them in the act of deep learning. These artifacts will be extremely useful for them as they curate their documentation wikis.

After the Exhibition concludes, students will self assess their documented learning on rubrics aligned to the elements of the PYP. Here is a link to a rubric from last year which is the model for this year’s rubrics.

Reflection


Students have been publishing their weekly learning journals on their blogs all year. During Exhibition, they are also expected to publish weekly posts reflecting on the progress of their exhibition inquiries and creations.

To scaffold these reflections, we conduct weekly interviews which are uploaded to YouTube. The students are encouraged to include them in their reflections, but it is not required. I have some preplanned questions and we also plan questions together at the beginning of the week. Knowing the questions in advance helps us to have a similar perspective on our activities and helps them to speak and reflect more fluently.


Early starters


I am very happy with the progress thus far. Empowering students to determine their own processes has yielded some interesting immediate results.

One student was inspired to create visual art by filling balloons with paint and air, taping them to paper, and then exploding them with darts.

The inquiry has also included researching the effects of music on brain development. After a brief coaching conversation, we agreed that the importance of Arts Education would be an ideal global issue around which her Exhibition can grow.


Another student began with a global issue: Animal Rights. She already has an excellent community action planned to volunteer at a local animal shelter.

She rushed to complete the poster. Her work led to a frank discussion about aesthetics and time management and she decided to start over, taking more time to create a more visually appealing product.


Call to action


In the first week of Exhibition, we also viewed PYP Exhibition: A Rite of Passage, an inspirational and motivational video I made last year. In most cases, the Exhibition is a student’s first opportunity for 100% self directed learning. Provided a minimum of guidance, I enjoy watching how each learner rises to the challenge.

Composite skills in the PYP

Preparing students for the Primary Years Program Exhibition, a self directed and collaborative culminating project, has been a rewarding challenge this year. In a sense, I’ve been thinking of the entire school as a long term project with the Exhibition being the ‘deliverable’ product.

The process of developing capacities and competencies in my students has led to analysis and evaluation of Transdisciplinary Skills in the PYP.

I like the list of skills and the categories into which they are organized (thinking, social, research, self management, communication), and I have been developing a model for composite skills. These are skills that require fluency in other fundamental skills and attitudes.

[This post was initially titled Hybrid skills in the PYP. After further consideration, I realized that ‘composite’ was a better description than ‘hybrid’. Hybrid connotes that only parts of the fundamental skills are utilized, while ‘composite’ connotes that each skill is integrated in its entirety. I took the liberty of substituting the terms throughout the post.]

The first composite skill I conceived at the end of the last school year was Conversation. My reasoning was that conversation requires a combination of the Listening and Speaking communication skills together with the attitude of Empathy.

During the year, I have introduced a few other composite skills to our classroom toolbox, and am now in the process of organizing and codifying them in the MindMup below. If you would like to collaborate, the Composite skills mind map is shared via Google Drive. Use MindMup to open it and get started.


What is technology?

On Monday morning, I embarked upon a unit of inquiry with my grade 5/6 class by using our usual ‘warm up’ routine to reflect on and discuss the slide below.

 

As students arrive in the morning, when possible, I project some sort of provocation, sometimes directly connected to our inquiries, sometimes specifically not, and sometimes just for fun (link to ‘warm up’ slides).

Many students sit down and begin writing or sketching immediately, while some prefer to converse before working independently. After a few minutes, we share and discuss our ideas.

This ‘technology’ provocation was effective and I was pleasantly surprised by students’ insights. Their responses included definitions with words like ‘tools’. ‘useful’, and ‘solve problems’. Some also alluded to negative as well as positive effects of technology. At the conclusion of our brief discussion, I introduced our central idea for the unit: Scientific understanding constantly evolves to build and destroy. (link to unit planner)

Before setting the students loose, we will conduct a modeled inquiry into 3D printing. The purpose will be to model a standard inquiry process as well as generate interest in various aspects of technology including scientific, social, artistic, and cultural. It was extremely effective last year and, especially based on my current class’ formative understandings, I’m confident that the next few weeks will be fun and enlightening.

Inquiry with Evernote vol 3 | Introducing the Inquiry Learning Resources Project

In the summer of 2013, I started using Evernote to collect and curate resources for planning and pursuing inquiry learning, as I blogged in the posts, Inquiry with Evernote vol 1 and Inquiry with Evernote vol 2 . Since then, my collection of notes has expanded. More importantly, the channels from which I collect these images, videos, and articles have become much more diverse and poignant. Most importantly, I am slowly refining my tagging strategies to make the collection more conceptually connected and social and environmental action oriented.

Now, I would like to introduce the Inquiry Learning Resources Project. The effort to build a digital notebook of inquiry provoking notes continues, but I have expanded the project to social media.

Evernote

The project’s primary home is the public notebook, Inquiry Learning Resources. Feel free to join, search, and utilize it for your classroom or personal inquiries.

Tumblr

This project was inspired by a desire to organize the fascinating content I discovered on Tumblr. Resources are shared on the Inquiry Learning Resources blog and using the tag #inquirylearning. That blog accepts submissions, so if you’re on Tumblr, feel free to contribute.

Twitter

I set up the account @provokinquiry to share resources on Twitter, and also using the #inquirylearning tag. Hopefully it will also be a great way to raise awareness for the project.

Pinterest

The public board Inquiry Learning Resources on Pinterest is also a great place to share. Please ask to join to submit pins.

Facebook

Resources are also shared on an Inquiry Learning Resources Page on Facebook.

The future

My immediate goal is to get in the habit of updating regularly, although completing projects is always a challenge due to the crunch of the school year before January. Hopefully, more inquiry educators will want to collaborate to help expand the project further!

LX Design

Two intersecting areas of study which have captivated my interest this year, Design Thinking and Project Management, have significant promise as I consider how to apply new principles to planning a year of learning in my Grade 5/6 classroom.

The two disciplines are strongly intertwined and have profound implications when applied to designing learning experiences. This post seeks to define LX Design as an approach to classroom planning and as a framework for ongoing iteration and reflection.


Design Thinking


Completing the Macromedia University Design Thinking MOOC introduced me to the discipline of User Experience Design, or UX Design. When thinking in terms of user experience, a designer considers all human elements and possibilities related to a product or service, not only the material and economic.

For example, when designing a machine to make coffee, one must consider not only the cost and suitability of the materials used, but also the likely moods of users, often early in the morning, while using the coffee machine.

A common theme in Design Thinking is to understand people’s emotional, social, psychological, and spiritual needs when designing products, services, and experiences. In the case of education, we design learning experiences, hence the term ‘LX Design’.

Meanings of use


Klaus Krippendorff’s lecture, The Key Concepts of The Semantic Turn, and in particular his explanations of ‘meanings of use’, challenged and transformed my thinking about learning. I recreated the graphic below to represent what I consider an essential model for educators. It is the foundation for my approach to LX Design.

To summarize, when a person encounters a thing, whether it’s a product or an idea, they must first recognize it and the opportunities it presents. Next, the thing can be explored, or used to try to accomplish a task. When a person becomes engaged with the thing, they might find it so useful as to become reliant upon it, using it naturally on a regular basis.

A great physical example is shoes. If you had never seen shoes before, you may or may not recognize how their shape resembles feet. If you did, you might try wearing them, even adjusting the laces for a comfortable fit, and walk. Before long, you would find yourself always wearing them for their comfort and safety until you can hardly imagine living without them.

Design Thinking in the classroom

The same model applies to knowledge, concepts, and learning tools.

In fifteen years as a professional educator, I have observed that everyone wants to learn what they can use. I suppose that is the reason the why Professor Krippendorf’s model resonated so strongly with me.


In my inquiry based classroom, I have been moving away from the ‘what students should know and be able to do’ model. Instead, I seek to design learning experiences that empower rich opportunities to construct understanding.


Following the design process described in the IDEO Design Thinking for Educators Toolkit, the first stage, Discovery, consists of two primary elements. First, the learning artifacts, and in particular the formative reflections, of previous year students. Second, data gathered in about my current class from their portfolios, assessment files, and personal experiences. This corresponds to ‘Recognition of opportunities’ in the Krippendorf model.

The next stages in the design process, Interpretation and Ideation, represent ‘purposeful Exploration’ in the Krippendorff model, and the bulk of the learning experience design in the first weeks of the school year. As the students and I collaboratively make sense of our current understandings, hypothesize approaches to learning that will lead to constructing deeper and more relevant meaning, and pursue those inquiries through Experimentation, our ‘Reliance’ on that learning provides the foundation and raw material for the Evolution of our thinking, according to the IDEO process.

That evolution begins with ‘disruption’ in the Krippendorff model, which in terms of learning I consider synonymous with cognitive dissonance. As our understandings evolve, ideally, we engage in an infinite learning loop, constantly reflecting and reevaluating, utilizing various models of inquiry or design to guide and share our learning.

As this project unfolds, an overriding goal is that the students begin to harness the processes of Design Thinking. In this way, the entire class can become a cooperative and collaborative LX Design Team engaged in constructing their own independent yet connected lines of inquiry.

The LX Design community


There are several excellent educators and organizations sharing their ideas on Design Thinking in education. I recommend exploring Jackie Gerstein’s The Educator as a Design Thinker for its enlightening graphic and wealth of well organized information and links to essential resources.

Maureen Devlin has explored learning design on her blog, including the provocative post, Learning Design: Center Stage in which she asks the essential question, ‘How can I synthesize materials, tools, strategies, standards, and students’ needs and interests to serve students well?’

Ewan McIntosh’s article, Design Thinking: Tools to help make thinking visible, provides an invaluable model for design thinking in action in the classroom.

I also recommend exploring IDEO Desing Thinking for Educators, the National Center on Universal Design for Learning, and Learning Designer, an exciting website for unit planning, sharing, and collaboration.

Project Management


While a design team utilizes design thinking principles to achieve common and generally clear goals, my classroom is not necessarily so collaborative nor certainly so linear. The highly personalized nature of inquiry learning requires a chaotic environment with learning streaming in different directions and intersecting in unpredictable ways.

Project Management, while primarily business-oriented, can contribute much needed principles to classroom learning experience design.

I have begun by considering this school year as a project ten months in duration, with the primary goals of students demonstrating academic mastery, practicing 21st century fluencies, and engaging in meaningful and significant community action. The pursuit of these goals will be on display during our Exhibition.

Reflecting on last year’s Exhibition, I utilized MindMup to organize essential tools and skills necessary for success in the document PYP Exhibition. By visualizing in this way, I was able to identify which elements would be best to introduce early in the school year and how the different elements could compliment each other.

For example, the one element which I found to be most foundational for success is Expository Writing. For that reason, in the first weeks of school, we have emphasized heavily the writing process and tools for gathering and organizing research data. As students engage with other tools and practice other literacies in their inquiries, this writing practice will continue to develop to become an increasingly reliable communication tool.


Another aspect of Project Management is sharing information. Using project management principles to identify stakeholders and establishing processes for increasing transparency can be a highly effective utilization of technology.

Another of Maureen Devlin’s posts, Transition to Transparency, is an insightful reflection on how and why ‘keeping communication fluid and transparent really helps to support a dynamic learning community’An indispensable tool in this process is A Useful Framework For Transparency In Education, a graphic model around which I am attempting to design a robust online system for collaborative document and data sharing. In a world connected by digital technologies, connectivist tools are essential to learning.

Ongoing inquiry


What I find most compelling about this endeavor is how perfectly it mirrors the inquiry learning process I wish to foster in my students. I am utilizing design principles to learn how to effectively facilitate their learning of design principles to facilitate their own learning!

Indeed it is easy to see how our processes may quickly become inseparable and indistinguishable.

This is a long term project I look forward to pursuing using the label LX Design and would certainly welcome collaborators!